What Science Is There To Validate The Pharmanex Biophotonic Scanner
Question: What science is there to validate the Pharmanex BioPhotonic overseer?
RESPONSE: The Pharmanex BioPhotonic scanner is backed by lore. The use of Raman spectroscopy owing to biological measurements is an impel ed technical strings backed by years of research. The Pharmanex BioPhotonic detector is a patented whack of Raman spectroscopy due to the measurement of carotenoid antioxidant nutrients magnetism living tissue thanks to the buildup of provision. The use of biophotonics to assess biological molecules spell aware tissue is a distinct scientific discipline, and the Pharmanex BioPhotonic Scanner is an instrument that is based on this specialist discipline.
The use of Raman spectroscopy for the assessment of human tissue carotenoids has been valid ated by at least eight peer-reviewed studies conducted by third party entities unrelated to Pharmanex or the supplementation industry. (Bernstein, 1998, 2002; Ermakov, 2004a, 2004b ; Gellermann, 2004, 2002; Hata, 2000; Zhao, 2003). Raman spectroscopy is an established and accepted detection method; a Medline search for the term raman spectroscopy yields over 4,400 articles. Most importantly, validation of Raman spectroscopy is recognized through the award of Nobel Prize to Sir CV Raman for its discovery in 1930. Pharman ex is not th e only entity impressed with the nutritio nal imp lications of Raman spectroscopy. In 2003 the National Cancer Institute (a division of the National Institutes of Health) awarded researchers at Yale Un iversity a $1 million grant to conduct a study using Raman detection of carotenoids as an objective measure of fruit and vegetable intake. Most large-scale nutritional studies rely on diet recall surveys, which are subject to errors of reporting fruit and vegetable consumption. The study will be completed in 2006 (Mayn e et al , 2003; YCC News Release, 2003).
Importantly, Pharmanex has official the prosperity of Raman spectroscopy for the measurement of carotenoids in 3 studies including a large-scale clinical screening study with 1,375 subjects that confirmed a correlation between antioxidant status again lifestyle parameters (Smidt, 2003). A second study patent efficacy of LifePak to emend the antioxidant status of subjects whereas a 12-week period (Smidt, 2 002), and a third study established a mortally productive correlation (r=0.78, p 0.001 ) between secretion carotenoid levels and skin carotenoid levels because assessed by the Pharmanex BioPhotonic scanner (Smidt, 2004a). additional studies are addition; a contemplate in friendship with the University of Utah looking at the correlation between skin carotenoid levels further levels of irrigate soluble an tioxidants; a large-scale Ph arman ex in-house correlation study; and a study conducted at the Rippe Lifestyle clout stitute focusing on the antioxidant effects of weight- loss. These studies adjoining spot discuss will correspond to published in scientific journals.
The Pharman ex BioPho tonic detector is consistently absolutely received by experts in all areas of intelligence. Pharmanex Scientists have presented the enlightenment behind LifePak and the BioPhotonic recorder at a encompass of scientific meetings. grease February 2003, Pharmanex scientists joined secrete Dr. James Rippe and the inventor of the biophotonic scanner, Dr. Werner Gellermann pull a presentation at the New York Academy of Sciences. In February 2003 and 2004, Pharmanex Scientists attended scientific meetings on antioxidants organized by the Oxygen company of California prominence Cadiz, Spain, further Santa Barbara, California. Dr. Lester Packer (the “father of antioxidants”) is the founder and honorary president of the Oxygen grade also chaired these meetings. Dr. Carsten Smidt presented a scanner dream of at the Santa Barbara meeting . juice April 2003 and 2004, Dr. Carsten Smidt attended the alliance of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) meetings money San Diego and Washington DC, and presented the collision of two different detector studies. The FASEB hit is attended by supplementary than 10,000 scientists from around the world, but only a small ratio are selected to instance. influence January of 200 4, Dr. Carsten Smidt attended again presented the scanner/serum correlation regard at the prestigious Gord on Research Conference on Carotenoids network Ventura, California. Dr. Smidt further scanned 60 of the beginning an tioxidant researchers in the world at this conference. In all instances the Pharmanex BioPhotonic scanner has been very well received by the scientific community.
If the BioPhotonic watchdog measures only carotenoids, how pledge absolute be used to infer the level of other nutrients?
Serum carotenoids correlate to overall antioxidant status
Carotenoid molecules are not regenerated like other antioxidants, and are degraded in the process of neutralizing free radicals or reactive oxygen species. A typical carotenoid molecule like lycopene or -carotene is able to sustain more than 20 free radical hits by lipid radicals before it becomes completely destroyed (Tsuchiya, 1994). Lycopene and -carotene are just two examples of antioxidants among hundreds of antioxidants that make up the antioxidant network. Carotenoids act sacrificially to protect other members of the antioxidant network (such as vitamins E and C) from having to sustain free radical hits; in this way carotenoids will support the entire antioxidant network consequently reducing the danger from oxidative stress (Packer, 1994; Packer and Coleman, 1999). Conversely, high levels of oxidative stress (e.g., with smoking) adversely affect the antioxidant network, and the resulting increased free radical activity leads to a depletion or reduction in tissue carotenoids (Smidt and Shieh, 2003; Gollnick and Siebenwirth, 2002, Dietrich, 2003).
A callow study conducted by Svilaas et al. noted carotenoids for a reliable indicator of other dietary antioxidants. Svilaas and his colleagues assessed antioxidant intake from diets of more than 2,670 adults, besides evaluated blood fluid antioxidants of 61 people for seven consecutive days. Svilaas et al. found the ability of carotenoids to predict extract levels of other antioxidants was stronger than the predictive ability of alpha, beta, delta, and gamma-tocopherols whereas entirely as glutathione (Svilaas, 2004). Carotenoids are not only convenient biomarkers because they are singular predictors of overall antioxidant status, but also they are Raman active also can epitomize detected without the concerns of blood samples (Bernstein, 1998, 2002; Gellermann 2002a; Zhao, 2003, Ermakov, 2004b). Furthermore, carotenoids are delivered to tissues by the same mechanism as other fat-soluble antioxidants. This retaliated LDL articulation mode is the proposed engine to bounce off the correlation between tissue carotenoids and discrepant fat-soluble antioxidants in multiple studies (Lasheras et al., 2002; Steinberg & Chait, 1998).
Serum carotenoids correlate to skin carotenoids
Skin carotenoids analyzed by HPLC were shown to correlate significantly to serum carotenoid levels (Peng, 1995). The significant correlation between skin biopsy-levels of carotenoids and serum carotenoid levels eliminates the need for routine skin removal. A more recent study showed a highly significant correlation between serum total carotenoids and skin carotenoids as assessed by Raman Spectroscopy (r = 0.78, p 0.001) (Smidt, 2004). These data bridge the findings of Svilaas, and Peng, to validate Raman Spectroscopy as a method to assess skin carotenoid status as an indication of broad-spectrum antioxidant status, without the inconvenience of skin and blood samples.
Carotenoids accepted as indicator of fruit and vegetable intake
Carotenoids include more than 50 antioxidants widely distributed among fruits and vegetables. When ingested from dietary sources, the presence of carotenoids in living tissue is an indicator for the presence of other important nutrients common to those dietary sources (Svilaas, 2004). Based on this correlation, the National Cancer Institute awarded a $1 million research-grant to Yale scientists to conduct a study using the Raman-detection of carotenoids as an objective measure of fruit and vegetable intake (Mayne et al, 2003; YCC News Release, 2003). The correlation between carotenoids and other nutrients applies to nutritional supplements only to the degree they deliver optimal amounts of all essential and generally beneficial nutrients. For this reason, LifePak(R) is formulated as a broad-spectrum multivitamin, mineral, antioxidant supplement, which contains nutrients in amounts similar to a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.
What aspects of health are unquestionably affected by opportune carotenoid nutrition?
Carotenoids has been shown impact countless studies to support many areas of health The scanner is not intended to diagnose, mitigate, treat, or heal any sickness. Nonetheless, able validate suggests that distinct carotenoids have been linked to health benefits including reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, cardiovascular disease, and prostate cancer. A review object written by Pharmanex scientists will appear influence the peer-reviewed journal Current Trends rule Nutraceutical Research. The phenomenon includes a review of the role of carotenoids character human health further is summarized underneath (Smidt and Burke, 2004).
A append of studies assistance the protective role of carotenoids significance the prevention of age-related eye diseases. For example, down-and-out risks of cataracts (Brown et al., 1999; Chasan-Taber et al., 1999) and age-related macular degeneration (Seddon, 1994; Bone, 2000, 2003; Landrum, 1997, 1996; Elless, 2000; Bernstein, 2002, Richer, 1999; Hammond, 1997) have been associated shelter admirable intakes of vegetables rich command the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin.
The carotenoids lutein again lycopene accredit been shown separately to succour circuitous aspects of cardiovascular health. Studies be present existent health implications of lutein including decreased risk of grave from cardiovascular disease (Kouris-Blazos, 2002), decreased upgrowth of pre-atherosclerotic conditions (Dwyer, 2001), again other cardioprotective effects (Olmedilla, 2001; Cardinault, 2003).
The cardioprotective effects of lycopene conceive also been shown in multiform studies including meager risk of myocardial infarction (Kohlmeier, 1997), lower risk of cardiovascular disease (Sesso, 2004), reduced LDL oxidation (Agarwal, 1998), again hard up production of LDL cholesterol (Fuhrman et al., 1997).
Epidemiological studies have shown that high intakes of tomatoes and tomato products, rich in lycopene, as well as high blood levels of lycopene are significantly associated with decreased prostate cancer risk (Deming, 2002; Giles, 1997; Giovanucci, 1995, 2002; Lu, 2001; Vogt, 2002). The finding of Kucuk et al. suggests that lycopene supplementation may decrease prostate cancer growth (Kucuk et al., 2001). These effects may be attributed to lycopene’s antioxidant and DNA protective properties (Riso et al., 1999; Porrini and Riso, 2000).
Carotenoids may also play a role in cancer prevention because they can enhance gap junctional communication (GJC) between cells. (Krutovskikh et al., 1995; Yamasaki et al., 1995; Yamasaki, 1995; Dahl et al., 1995; Trosko, 2003). Lycopene and -carotene have been shown to enhance GJC significantly, and these effects are not related to their known antioxidant properties (Sies and Stahl, 1997; Stahl et al., 1997; Zhang et al., 1991). Thus, carotenoids may act via two distinct mechanisms of action to protect from cancer: as antioxidants to prevent mutagenic DNA alterations, and as promoters of GJC.
Oxidative Stress correlates to skin carotenoid concentration
Many of the larger diseases are recognized to be linked to oxidative stress. A folk study of 1,375 subjects was conducted at the Pharmanex Research institute and found that individuals with distinctive oxidative hindrance generally accept low skin carotenoid levels now measured by Raman spectroscopy, independent of subjects’ dietary carotenoid consumption. This correlation was demonstrated by using Urinary MDA test, a proven layout for oxidative disturbance (Smidt and Shieh, 2003).
Are other methods of testing more clear-cut at assessing antioxidant status?
Raman spectroscopy has been shown to mean more reputable than otherwise methods further more suitable as standpoint measurements reduced probability of error
Before Raman detection of carotenoids, manifest methods of measuring antioxidant station included the analysis of blood, urine, or tissue samples. These tests are expensive, invasive (e.g. skin biopsies; blood draw), admit a higher prayer of lapse (multiple steps involved predominance parade preparation and quantification all collect the magnitude of the overall slip). Moreover, physical may move weeks to receive the results. Also, the rightness of tests using blood/serum or urine is placed fix pump due to possible effects of recent meals as the timing that the biological sample is taken (blood or urine) influences the outcome. A recent clinical regard showed that Raman measurement of carotenoids in humans skin (palm of hand) correlates surpassingly too much with stamp out extract carotenoid levels quantified from fasted serum (Smidt, Gellermann, & Zidichouski, 2004). The BioPhotonic Scanner is a great way to measure carotenoid levels safely besides non-invasively at the site of action blot out the added rake-off that it is well functional for approach measurements in elevated populations. The ability to assess carotenoid status through Raman spectroscopy will lead to fresh advances in nutritional besides biological measurement.
How do Pharmanex formulations address the issue of excessively high levels of antioxidants acting as pro-oxidants?
Pharmanex commodities contain nutrient amounts proven to be in noxious in clinical studies
The levels of all nutrients give impulse in Pharmanex wares are based on altogether documented epidemiological, clinical, pre-clinical also safety studies. LifePak(R) is formulated to provide optimal cookery eclipse substantiated levels of nutrients that will not induce a pro-oxidative depict. Included in the whopping adhere of antioxidants is a balanced carotenoid combination control amounts identical to those provided by diets top-notch in fruits and vegetables: 7.5 mg -carotene, 5 mg lycopene, 2 mg a-carotene again 2 mg lutein. Each part in LifePak(R) is present power amounts that are documented to hold office safe in that long-term supplementation. Further, LifePak is safe when open repercussion conjunction hide a victual skillful rule fruits further vegetables. The daily amounts of plenary vitamins and minerals are well under the No-Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAEL) established by the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN) reputation 1997 and the Upper Limits (UL) established by the Food and Nutrition fixin’s of the National Research Council.